Did you know that natural gas is a fossil fuel that generates fewer harmful by-products than coal or oil? Furthermore, it also has lower emissions when utilized for electricity production compared to coal.
However, continued reliance on natural gas at the expense of carbon-free energy sources will hamper our ability to meet climate goals.
Natural gas, composed mostly of methane, is a clean-burning fossil fuel. It is a highly versatile energy source that can produce electricity, heat homes, and fuel vehicles. Using natural gas as an alternative to coal and oil is helping reduce air pollution in cities across the United States.
Compared to coal and oil, natural gas production is half as much carbon dioxide and one-third less when used to generate electricity. It also emits fewer hazardous pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and fine particulates, known to contribute to asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer.
Using natural gas can be a short-term solution to help decrease global dependence on fossil fuels until more renewable energy options can be scaled up cost-effectively and mainstream. However, natural gas’s environmental benefits depend on how it is extracted and utilized. Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, has been controversial due to its potential to pollute water supplies and release methane into the atmosphere. Without proper management of methane emissions throughout the production process, the environmental benefits of natural gas may be negated.
Natural gas produces fewer harmful emissions when burned compared to other fossil fuels. Its lower carbon footprint translates into better air quality. The combustion of natural gas generates half the CO2 of coal to produce the same amount of energy and a fraction of other air pollutants.
Unlike other fossil fuels, which produce sulfur and mercury oxides, burning natural gas emits low levels of these harmful substances. Moreover, it emits virtually no particulate matter. These reduced emissions can improve air quality and help combat smog.
Over one-third of all natural gas in the United States is converted into electricity to power homes, businesses, and other facilities. The country’s power sector has decreased its CO2 emissions by more than 30% since 2005 by switching from coal to natural gas for generating electricity. This decrease is mainly due to domestic production and hydraulic fracturing.
However, producing and delivering natural gas emissions also significantly impact our environment. Methane leaks from drilling and pipelines are significantly higher than reported, exacerbating climate change impacts.
Lower Carbon Footprint
Many power plants and industrial applications generate harmful gases contributing to smog and poor air quality. Using natural gas instead of other fossil fuels can greatly decrease the pollutants released into the atmosphere. Moreover, switching electric generators to natural gas during off-peak seasons can eliminate smog-causing emissions while the sun is not shining.
When burned, natural gas produces half of the climate-warming pollution that coal does and virtually no sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides. The combustion of natural gas also produces fewer particulates, which contribute to respiratory and other illnesses.
The main advantage of using natural gas as a transportation fuel is its much lower carbon footprint than gasoline or diesel, thanks to its higher energy efficiency. In addition, unlike liquid hydrocarbons such as petroleum, natural gas is a gas, so if it leaks into the environment, it will dissipate quickly rather than leaving toxic sludge in the soil and water. As a result, it’s safer for ground and marine wildlife. The reduced carbon footprint of natural gas is even more important given its increasing use in the United States as a replacement for coal due to technological advances and renewable electricity policies.
Increased Energy Efficiency
Using natural gas to replace other fossil fuels can help decrease harmful pollution levels in various sectors, including the electric and transportation sectors. Unlike coal, the combustion of natural gas produces low levels of nitrogen oxides and virtually no particulate matter. This can help combat smog formation and poor air quality in areas already struggling with this issue.
On the power grid, natural gas can produce electricity with up to 50% less carbon dioxide per kilowatt hour of energy produced than coal. Furthermore, natural gas combined-cycle power plants are more efficient than coal plants, with up to 60% more energy produced from a given amount of raw natural gas.
However, relying on natural gas to replace other polluting fuels must be done with a strong push towards carbon-free alternatives such as wind and solar. Additionally, drilling for and transporting natural gas has environmental issues. For example, pipelines can cause habitat fragmentation and cross important areas from a wildlife perspective. Furthermore, methane leakage from pipelines can have big environmental problems as well.
As a fossil fuel, natural gas emits significantly less carbon dioxide and fewer harmful air pollutants than oil or coal. When burned to generate electricity, it produces far fewer nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter than the combustion of other fossil fuels. It also has the potential to reduce acid rain, a damaging environmental problem that affects crops, forests, and wildlife populations and can cause respiratory problems in humans.
Unfortunately, the environmental benefits of using natural gas are limited by a troubling issue: methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure. Natural gas pipelines, wells, and processing plants can leak substantial amounts of methane into the atmosphere, a potent greenhouse gas 34 times stronger at trapping heat than CO2 over 100 years.
In addition to global warming, methane emissions contribute to air quality degradation by causing particulate pollution, which has been linked to a higher risk of premature death.